Firstly start with the Causes of Nose Bleeding types.
Also called Runny Nose, or simply nosebleeds, epistaxis can occur without apparent cause (essential nosebleeds) or as a symptom of local or general affection (secondary nosebleeds).
Most of the time, especially in younger patients, the bleeding is due to spontaneous rupture of the small vessels of the nasal mossy, as a result of irritation or minor injuries (common cold , clumsy maneuvers with your fingers, rhinitis , typical hormonal changes of puberty and so on.)
More rarely, and especially in the elderly, nosebleeds may be a symptom of a severe malaise. Indeed there are numerous pathological situations that may cause nosebleeds:
- Vascular fragility,
- Atherosclerosis ,
- Heart disease,
- Hypertension ,
- Infectious diseases (scarlet fever, typhoid fever, measles etc.)
- Vitamin deficiencies ,
- Renal and Hepatobiliary diseases,
- Heat stroke.
- More information about the causes of epistaxis are available by clicking here.
The origin of the bleeding can also be more or less severe local factors (variceal bleedings, nasal polyps, septal deviation, tumors, perforating ulcer of the septum, Osler-Weber-Rendu Disease, nasopharyngeal fibroma, and chemical irritation – see cocaine).
What to do? Emergencies and First Aid
→ If the bleeding of blood vessels present in the nasal cavities does not follow a head injury, you need to put the victim in a sitting position, his head slightly bent forward; this, together with the invitation to spit the blood may be present in the oral cavity, has the aim to avoid the onset of nausea or vomiting with its ingestion.
Loosen clothing around the neck and compress the bleeding nostril with a finger for a few minutes; useful, if possible, cooling with ice or cold water to the root of the nose.
It ‘also important, ceased to bleeding, avoid blowing your nose or rub; in the days to be avoided major physical effort.
→ If the bleeding does not stop you should contact your doctor for a Tamponade (introduction into the nasal cavity of a cylinder cotton soaked in hydrogen peroxide or an iodoform gauze) or, in the most severe and recurrent bleeding, via acid burn. Medical consultation is a must in case of recurrent epistaxis, in order to perform all the necessary investigations in order to discover the causes.
→ If the loss of blood from the nose is due to a Craniofacial trauma goes suspected fracture of the nasal bone is present whenever his nose swollen and sore. In this case it is good to avoid any maneuver, since improper interventions or clumsy may cause permanent cosmetic damage.
If the patient loses consciousness following the trauma must be put into the recovery position on the side of the bleeding (to prevent blood from collecting in back of the mouth and obstructing the airway); this operation should be performed with the aid of a companion to avoid undue movements of the neck.
Read also: Remedies for Blood from the Nose‘
The published material is intended to allow rapid access to tips, suggestions and general remedies that doctors and textbooks are used to dispense for the treatment of epistaxis; Such indications should not in any way replace the advice of your physician or other health specialists who are treating the patient.
What to do. To Stop a Nose Bleed
- Depending on the cause, the blood from the nose can be prevented in a more or less effective (see below Prevention).
- Cure or compensate for diseases that determine the nose bleeding (dysplasias, ulcers, deviations, varicose veins of the nose; atherosclerosis, heart disease, hypertension, infection, coagulopathy, renal and hepatic diseases).
- Follow a balanced diet.
During the bleeding event, the devices more useful to block the bleeding are:
- IF there is no head injury:
- Acquire a sitting position and gently tilt the head forward.
- Spitting blood to avoid the onset of nausea and vomiting.
- Freeing the neck: loosen the tie, loose shirt, remove scarf or neckerchief.
- Press down on the bleeding nostril for a few minutes.
- Apply a cold wool cloth, preferably containing ice directly on the nose: the low temperature causes vasoconstriction and the resultant decrease in blood flow. Alternatively, you can wet it with cold water.
- It continues nosebleeds:
- Consult a doctor or a paramedic (ER) to:
- Application of a swab (cotton or gauze with hydrogen peroxide).
- Nasal cauterization.
- IF the person loses consciousness it is good to place it lying on its side (in particular with the suspicion of a concussion).
What NOT to Do in Nose bleeding.
- Neglecting primary diseases responsible for nosebleeds.
- Avoid exposure to volatile chemicals. Some examples are: thinners, paint, paint remover etc.
- Avoid the use of cocaine or other drugs to inhale.
- Prevent the abuse of drugs that excessively dry out the mucous membrane or weaken: antihistamines for allergies, decongestants such as naphazoline (for example Rinazina), steroids etc.
- Avoid the risk of heat stroke, often responsible of nose bleeding.
- During epistaxis:
- Avoid anxiety and physical agitation is the emotional complications that cardio-respiratory hyperactivity are able to worsen nosebleeds.
- Avoid placing his head: can promote blood ingestion coming down from the palate and accumulates in the mouth (favoring the onset of nausea and vomiting).
- It the nose is swollen and sore, indicating a craniofacial trauma with fracture AVOID any work and apply directly to the emergency room.
What to EAT to prevent a Nose Bleed.
- There is a diet that can prevent the bleeding of the nose. However, you can define that a diet rich in vitamins constitutes a preventive factor.
- Rich plant pot protective substances are triterpene, tannins, and pigments and so on. The foods containing them are those of vegetable origin: fruits, vegetables, seeds, roots, flowers, wine etc. Black. To maintain their function must be fresh.
- In the case of hypertension, diet should be designed to reduce this primary disorder (see Remedies Hypertension).
- If the Runny Nose is serious and contributes to establishing a framework anemic , it is essential to compensate for losses by eating foods rich in iron bioavailable , vitamin B12 , folic acid and vitamin C :
- Iron-rich foods , especially heme and iron ( 2+ ):
- Muscle tissue: both terrestrial and aquatic animals: horse meat, beef, swine, avian, of fish, shellfish whole (even land snails), crustaceans etc. whole.
- Eggs: Any, especially the yolk.
- Offal and fifth quarter: especially the spleen and liver, but also marrow, diaphragm, heart etc.
- Foods rich in vitamin C , citric acid and fructose :
- Sweet and sour fruit: lemon, grapefruit, orange, tangerine, clementine, kiwi, cherries, strawberries etc.
- Vegetables and tubers: parsley, peppers, lettuce, spinach, radishes, broccoli, tomato, potato and so on.
- Foods rich in vitamin B12 (cobalamin):
- The same food source of heme iron; Moreover, they are rich in vitamin B12 certain algae and bacteria.
- Folic acid-rich foods: liver, vegetables (e.g. the tomatoes), fresh fruit (orange, apple, etc.) and legumes (e.g. the beans).
- NB: Vitamin C or ascorbic acid and folic acid molecules are thermolabile and are degraded by cooking. This means that foods containing them should be recruited mostly raw.
- However the principles anti nutritional (phytates and oxalates) are degraded by the heat treatment. This means that legumes, the whole grain, the spinach, the rhubarb etc. should always be eaten after cooking.
- Iron-rich foods , especially heme and iron ( 2+ ):
What NOT to EAT in Nose bleeding
- There are no foods that worsen the bleeding of the nose, except for alcohol and chili, which exert a strong effect dilating vessel.
- Application of a cotton swab or hydrophobic gauze inside the nostril: this is an operation that should be performed by the physician or paramedical personnel. However, if the nosebleed is not complicated to bone fractures, lacerations of the mucosa and loss of consciousness, you can perform the maneuver independently.
- Cautery or nasal acid burn meter: mucosal burn operation in which it broke the vase. It serves to heal the injury by stopping the bleeding. It must be performed by medical personnel.
- Binding: consists in manually locked with a thread of the damaged vessel.
To prevent nosebleeds is important to avoid pressure surges (those typical of rapid ascent in ‘surface diving) and control any diseases that cause bleeding from the nose.
If this occurs it is good to remain calm as anxiety seems to be an aggravating factor the bleeding.
The preventive measures against the Runny Nose are generic and mainly affect the cases of primary epistaxis:
- Avoid pressure surges: a striking example is that of the fleeting lift of a scuba diver. On the other hand, such conduct could cause the more serious complications that a banal nose bleeding (see Decompression Sickness – MDD).
- Control any diseases that cause bleeding from the nose and prevent relapse; especially the common cold, the allergic rhinitis, the ‘ flu and generally all diseases affecting the nose. Cause inflammation / hypertrophy of the mucous membranes and their irritation, resulting in blowing his nose repeatedly.
- Do not expose the nasal membranes to volatile irritants.
- Do not unnecessarily use the drugs intranasal.
- Do not expose the nasal membranes to physical stress.
- Prevent heat stroke.
- Follow a balanced diet, rich in vitamins and other nutrients that can improve the condition of the vessels.
The symptom – Nosebleed – is typical of diseases, conditions and disorders in bold. Nosebleeds can also be a typical symptom of other diseases, not included in our database and therefore not listed.
Here are some tips to Stop Nose bleedings.